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英语翻译论文毕业论文


On Barriers to English-Chinese Translation from the Perspectives of Cultural Background and Thought StyleAbstract …………………………………………………..………………………..……Ⅱ 1. Introduction ………..……………………………………………………………..…..1 2. The specific analysis of barriers to English-Chinese translation from the perspectives of cultural background and thought style ………..……………….…2 2.1 From the perspective of cultural background…………………………………..….2 2.1.1 The translation of idioms…………………………………………………….3 2.1.2 The translation of enigmatic sayings ………………………………………..4 2.1.3 The translation of allusions …………………………………………………6 2.2 From the perspective of thought style………………….………………….……....7 2.2.1 Chinese emphasis on perception and intuition, and western emphasis on reasoning and logic………. ……….………..………… ………….......7 2.2.2 Different ways of expression determined by different thought styles …........8 2.2.3 Chinese belief in integration and western belief in individuality………........9 3. Solutions ……………………………………..……………………………....…...….10 3.1 To the problems caused by different cultural backgrounds………………….……10 3.2 To the problems brought about by different thought styles………………….……12 4. Conclusion ………………………………………………………………..……..…...12 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………..….......14 Summary of writing this thesis…………………………………………………....…...15 Acknowledgements………………………………………………………….…….....…16I

On Barriers to English-Chinese Translation from the Perspectives of Cultural Background and Thought StyleAbstract: Translation should be the reappearance of the original work. In other words, the image, the artistic effect, and the meaning of the original works should all be successfully delivered in the translated version. But there exist some factors that make it impossible to produce excellent translations. Among the factors that affect translation, different cultural backgrounds and different thought styles are the most influential ones. Language is the embodiment of culture, and in dealing with the translation of works, what is the most important of all is to deal with the element of culture. Good management of cultures of different nations is one of the key points in doing translation. Idioms, enigmatic sayings and allusions are the most culturally specific expressions that cause great difficulties for translators. Thought style is the factor that affects the composition of a sentence, a paragraph, or an article, and even the understanding of them. Because of Chinese emphasis on perception and intuition, Chinese characters are pictographic; and because westerners are reasonable and logical, objectivity is the main property of English vocabulary. Today there is almost no integrated analysis on this topic. Some unsuccessful translations resulting from different cultural backgrounds and different thought styles are easy to be found in translated works which is hard for target readers to understand. The aim of this paper is to analyze the elements of cultural background and thought style that affect English-Chinese translation, and then to provide some good methods to overcome these difficulties. Through analyzing these barriers, it can be concluded that, to produce good translated versions, a well awareness of different culture backgrounds, a good command of different thought styles, and an adoption of proper translation methods are needed. Key Words: translation; cultural background; thought style; translation method翻译应该是原著的重现, 也一定是原著的字面意义与其意象和艺术性的完善传达。

摘 要: 在妨碍翻译的要素中,文明背景的不同以及思想方式的不同妨碍最深。

言语是文明的载II

体,在做翻译时,最严重的一定是处置文明的特征。

处置好各族文明的成绩是做好翻译的 要紧之一。

在文明要素中,妨碍最大的是成语、歇后语以及典故。

它们最具有文明特征, 给译者带来格外大费事。

思想方式是妨碍写作句子、段落、文章的要素,也是妨碍对它们 了解的要素。

由于中国人重理性与直觉,因此汉语词汇较笼统;而由于西方人重推理与 法规,英语词汇的表意较具有客观性。

如今,在这方面几乎还没有综合性追求。

一些由 文明背景或思想方式不同惹起的失败翻译随地可见,它们让读者难以了解。

这篇论文旨 在经过对文明要素以及思想方式妨碍英汉翻译的探索,进而提出一些翻译办法,以处置 这些成绩。

经过对这两种要素的追求与分析,发现要做好翻译,我们就务必对不同文明 深化了解,对不同文明背景下的思想方式知晓掌握,而且还要适当抉择翻译办法。

要紧词: 要紧词:翻译;文明背景;思想方式;翻译办法III

On Barriers to English-Chinese Translation from the Perspectives of Cultural Background and Thought Style1. IntroductionWhen it comes to translating “give a bad name to the dog before hanging it”, many people will do it in this way, “杀死这只狗前先给这只狗一个坏名字”. The translated version is hard for a native Chinese to understand though it’s both grammatically and semantically right. The final goal of translation should be a successful delivery of the meaning of the original version to the target readers, and overcome the obstacles existing between two languages. Undoubtedly, the above Chinese version turns out to be a failure because of the failure in reaching this goal. The problem lies in the improper choice of translation method. Translation should be the reappearance of the original version. In other words, the image and the artistic effect of the original version should all be successfully delivered, not just the meaning of the words in each sentence. The latter, for a translator, is not a difficulty, but the former presents real difficulties to them. There are many factors that affect understanding and translation, and the most influential factors are cultural background and thought style differences. This paper attempts to analyze these two factors. The first is cultural background difference. Language is produced and developed in pace with the production and the development of human culture, so the separation of language from culture is bound to be impossible. The differences of the development in different areas produce various idioms, enigmatic sayings and allusions which are broadly used in their languages. Only a thorough awareness of different cultural backgrounds of both languages can well serve to produce qualified translated versions. The second is thought style difference existing between easterners and westerners, and different ways of expression determined by the above difference. “Easterners emphasize perception and intuition, while westerners are rather reasonable and logical; Chinese people stress ideas while Westerners stress forms, which will affect their respective ways of1

expression—hypotaxis of the latter and the parataxis of the former; furthermore, Chinese people believe in integration while the westerners believe that the individual is the most important.” (陈宏薇,1998:28) These two factors produce great differences in composing a paragraph or a sentence, or even in choosing a subject to describe, which causes great difficulty for translators to produce authentic translated version. But fortunately, so many excellent translators, despite the difficulties, who appropriately and accurately use proper means, who are broadly and deeply aware of both eastern and western cultures, and who have a thorough understanding of different thought styles of the westerners and the easterners, are producing great translated versions.2. The specific analysis of barriers to English-Chinese translation from the perspectives of cultural background and thought style 2.1 From the perspective of cultural backgroundCulture has always been the factor that affects translation most. Different countries develop their specific cultures in the process of history. Language is the embodiment of culture, and in dealing with the translation of the original version, what is most important of all is to deal with the element of culture. Consequently, good management of culture is one of the key points in doing translation. And in culture, idioms, enigmatic sayings and allusions are the most culturally specific expressions that cause great difficulties for translators. Dealing with these is difficult but necessary. A blind pursuit of the integration of form and content, and the word-for-word translation of the original version, are possibly a wrong or a distorted delivery of the image and the artistic effect of the original version. Furthermore, different cultural backgrounds make language users choose different subjects in describing the same thing. A well handling of the different choices of subjects in different languages is indispensable for the translation of a language with specific culture. The objectivity of cultural background diversities makes it impossible to get rid of it, but possible to overcome it and to rightly deliver the meaning. The aim of this part is to analyze the translation of this quintessence from the perspectives of idioms, enigmatic sayings and allusions, and to do2

some attempts to overcome these difficulties.2.1.1 The translation of idiomsAn idiom is “a phrase or a sentence whose meaning is not clear from the meaning of its individual words, and which must be learnt as a whole unit” (Hornby,2002:734). It is produced, always in a historical story, in which some of the words or expressions are taken out to be used, spread and delivered to our modern society. Then idiom is bound to be one of the products of historical culture, and very culturally specific, and to some degree, untranslatable. The following examples aim at finding out some proper methods to overcome the difficulties in idiom translation. a. 讳莫如深 A Bottle is “a glass or plastic container, usually with a narrow neck used for storing liquids” (Hornby,2002:154). It is adopted to indicate a good character of keeping promise, not telling other people the secret until death. Some people translate it into “keep one’s mouth as a flask”, which is a typical literal translation. As a native Chinese, if given the meanings of a few words, one is easy to understand the translation, while for a native English, if not given Chinese cultural background, one is impossible to understand it. For readers of the translated version are English-speaking people instead of Chinese people, the above translation is a failure. It is difficult for people in English-speaking countries to understand how the “flask” is used to describe one’s character of keeping promise, so the translated version failed to deliver the connotation of the original version. Instead of using flask, they use “oyster” to describe this character, thus the correct translated version goes: as dumb as an oyster. b. “pig might fly” and “太阳从西边出来” Let us look at the following dialogue:E.g. “He would come tomorrow.” “Yes and a pig might fly!”In the translation of this dialogue, one tends to translate it into “猪会飞”; but if you think twice, you will find it improper to do it in that way. At last you may change it into “太阳从西3

边出来”. “A pig might fly” is an English idiom, which indicates “miracles may happen but they are extremely unlikely” (Hornby, 2002: 1108). Though Chinese people know the fact that the pig can not fly is true, they do not talk in that way, instead, in the way “太阳从西边出来”. So the first translated version is not as good as the second one. There are so many idioms like this, for example “as stubborn as a mule” can be translated into “犟得像头牛”, rather than “犟得像头驴子”, “as stupid as a goose” into “蠢得像头猪”, instead of “蠢得像只鹅”, and so on.2.1.2 The translation of enigmatic sayingsAn enigmatic saying is “a two parts allegorical saying of which the first part, always stated, is descriptive, while the second part, some times unstated, carries the massage”. (疑 华,2002:1181) The use of enigmatic sayings is a phenomenon only appears in China, and it is peculiar to Chinese culture. It has in it so many things which are closely related to Chinese culture. If not properly handled, the translated version may not be understood by target readers. a. 狗咬吕洞宾—不识坏人心 There is no enigmatic saying in English language, and the westerners don’t know who Lu Tung-pin is and what his character is. It is impossible for people without Chinese cultural background to understand the translation “the dog bits Lu Tung-pin—doesn’t know other’s kind heart”. Then we should not translate it literally, instead we can only translate the connotation of it. When translating “你别狗咬吕洞宾, 不识坏人心”, should better do it in we this way: “Don’t snap and snarl at me when I am trying to do my best for you” (陈文伯, 2005: 258). b. “丈二和尚—摸不着头脑” Literal translation: “given a monk of 4 meters high, we cannot touch his head.” Free translation: “one’s mind is in a mess.” The literally translated version is obviously a good joke, which to an English-speaking people, doesn’t mean anything. It is easy for them to understand that if a monk is 4 meters high, we cannot touch his head, but the connotative meaning of “摸不着头脑” fails to be conveyed in4

the translated version. The free translation is acceptable because it rightly delivers the meaning of the original sentence. Because of the untranslatability of enigmatic sayings, the cultural speciality and the original image has been lost, but the freely translated version is readable and understandable, and it can be considered as a good translated version. c. “猫哭耗子—假慈悲” For this enigmatic saying, we should firstly think about literal translation method: a cat crying for the death of a mouse doesn’t show a real sympathy. It is well known that the cat is the natural enemy of the mouse, but in this enigmatic saying, the cat cries for the mouse, so the crying can not be a real sympathy. It does not sound natural for a westerner, but they can imagine the meaning of the translated version. If we use free translation method, the meaning is successfully delivered to the reader, but the image is lost. In this case the literal translation method is the best one. When translating an enigmatic saying, we should first consider literal translation method. If both westerners and easterners can understand the translated version by using general knowledge, we use literal translation method, because it can maintain the image and the artistic effect of the original version; but if they can’t, we’d better use free translation method to deliver the meaning first, because when there are conflicts between the meaning delivery and image and artistic effect delivery, we cannot take both, and the most important is the meaning delivery; and if given the possibility of being understood by adding something on after literal translation, it will be a good translated version. In sum, different translation methods adapt to different enigmatic sayings.2.1.3. The translation of allusionsAn allusion is defined as “an implied or indirect reference to something assumed to be known, such as an historical event or personage, a well-known quotation from literature, or a famous work of art” (Yuan Honggeng and Lu Yujin, 2003: 121). In different countries, people use different allusions to indicate the same thing. There are some examples: a. God of health—Hygeia in the sentence “Hygeia herself would have fallen sick under such a regimen; and how much more this poor old nervous victim.” In Greece myths, Hygeia (Hygia), the daughter of Aesculapius, is the goddess of both physical and mental heath (刘超之、艾英译,1998:57-59) . The writer means that even the5

healthy god gets ill under such condition, needless to say the sick old victim. The translated version “海基亚” can not be called a good one because Chinese people don’t know who Hygia is, and we’d better add “安康女神” before “海基亚” to compensate for the lack of western cultural background. b. “程咬金” There is an old saying “半路杀出个程咬金”. We Chinese use it to express that at the critical moment, one comes out to get all things out of trouble. Cheng Yaojin was a high-ranking officer in Tang dynasty, who was always getting things out of trouble at the critical moment, thus the saying goes, “半路杀出个程咬金”. When doing translation, we should not translate it into “Cheng Yaojin” because there isn’t Cheng Yaojin in western countries, nor this allusion. Fortunately a god named Deus Ex Machina (god from the machina) in the Rome opera plays the same part as Cheng Yaojin in China, and in English, “Ghost in the machine” is used to convey the same meaning. c. “Achilles’ heel” In Iliad, Achilles was the son of Poles. After his birth, his mother wanted him to be strong and immortal, and put him in the fire to burn and into the river Styx. His mother did it everyday when he was a child, and finally he became undefeatable and could not be destroyed. But unfortunately, his mother held his heel and put him into the water of the river Styx, so his heel was very weak and became his only weak point. After killing so many soldiers in the war of Troy, he was killed by an arrow shot at his heel. Then “Achilles’ heel” is regarded as the only and the weakest point of someone or something. Chinese people don’t know the story of Achilles, and if we translate it into “阿基流斯的脚踝”, it will be hard for Chinese people to understand it. When translating “his laziness is his heel of Achilles”, “他的懒散是他的阿基 流斯的脚踝” should not be the proper translated version. We should change “阿基流斯的脚 踝” into “致命弱点”which can faithfully deliver the inner meaning of the original sentence. In sum, in the translation of allusion, the inner meaning of the original version should be put more emphasis, and the key to the translation of allusion is to deliver the unstated and the intended meaning, which can compensate for the cultural default. The image of allusion should be considered, but if there is a conflict between the delivery of meaning and that of image, the former should be considered more important.6

2.2 From the perspective of thought style 2.2.1 Chinese emphasis on perception and intuition, and western emphasis on reasoning and logicBecause of Chinese emphasis on perception and intuition, Chinese characters are pictographic; and because westerners are rather reasonable and logical, objectivity is the main property of English vocabulary. Chinese characters are full of images. For example, Chinese character “刀” resembles the image of a knife; “伞” (umbrella), the image of an open umbrella; “日” (sun) and “月” (moon), the image of the sun and moon in the sky, etc. When comparing Chinese character with English vocabulary, it is easy to find that the former is direct and full of images,while the later is objective and functional, without considering the image of a word. Furthermore, Chinese people like using concrete things to symbolize the abstract things. For example, in “兵败如山”, Chinese people use “如山” to indicate the tendency of being defeated: nothing can resist and nothing can halt it, just like a falling mountain; “蚕食” is used in Chinese to indicate the aggression is gradually done but never pulled back, just like the silkworms are eating the leaves. These two examples are very good examples to show concrete things symbolizing abstract meanings. In dealing with these translations, we should translate its intended meaning. This kind of translation makes loses in image, but it is understandable. For some of this kind of words, we can translate literally, but it should be based on the understanding of the translated version by using general knowledge. If it can be literally translated without affecting target readers’ understanding, it is the best one.2.2.2 Different ways of expression determined by different thought stylesBecause of different thought styles of western people and Chinese people, there exists a distinct difference between English and Chinese ways of expression. English is a hypotactic, while Chinese is more a paratactic language than a hypotactic one. Fowler describe Chinese language as a language like running water —“Chinese is like waves in the sea, one up and one down; they look like the same one, but in fact they are totally different” (连淑能,1993:7

45). The relationship between words is very hard to tell, so is that among sentences and among paragraphs. Take “否极泰来” for example, the relationship between “否极” and “泰 来” can be easily understood as “supposing-judge” and “reasoning-judge” relationship, so it can be translated into “if the bad thing ends, the good one happens” and “because the bad thing ends, the good one happens”. We can see that the meaning of Chinese language is broad and ambiguous. Chinese lacks using connection words, while English prefers using them. For westerners, more emphasis will be put on the expression of the logical order of the sentences, so many connection words will be used to indicate the logical relationship between sentences. Let us look at the following example:Original version: No, No, we are not satisfied, and we will not be satisfied until justice roll down like waters and righteousness like a mighty stream. Translated version: 不,不,我们没有满足,我们也不或许满足,直到公允如大水滚滚,公义如江 水滔滔。

The original version comes from Martin Luther King’s speech “I have a dream”. There are two “ands” and an “until” in it to strengthen rhythm and guarantee a mighty energetic power. If we translate the two “ands” into characters like “而且”,the power will be destroyed, and the effect of the speech may be affected. In the translation, the word like “and” are not translated in order to deliver a better intention of the original version. There are five commas in the translated version, while only three in the original one. This way of dealing with the translation is closely related to the parataxis of Chinese language—the short sentences in Chinese can deliver a better rhythm and the logical relationship within it. To sum up, a good consideration of the differences between English hypotaxis and Chinese parataxis is the foundation of translation. In translation from English to Chinese, after analyzing the property of hypotaxis, we can produce paratactic Chinese version, while in translation from Chinese to English, after analyzing the property of parataxis, we can produce hypotactic English version. Hypotaxis and parataxis are the basic differences between English and Chinese. Hypotactic language is a reflection of the logical and accurate thought style, while paratactic8

language is that of the general and ambiguous thought style. A good handling of hypotaxis and parataxis is necessary in doing English-Chinese translation. As a translator, he/she should consider the characteristics of hypotaxis and parataxis of both the original language and the target language, in order to, on the one hand, reappear the original meaning, and on the other hand, reappear the image and artistic effect of the original version.2.2.3 Chinese belief in integration and western belief in individualityChinese people believe in the integration of nature and human beings. Book of Changes(易经), the foundation of Chinese classical culture, points out that everything should be “integrated and harmonious”, and should be “produced and developed in the change of Yinyang”, and it also discusses the “spirit of the eternal universe and the integration of dealing with things and this spirit” (白话易经(全译本), 1997: 465). However, westerners believe that the individual is the most important, and that human beings rely on nature but are separated from nature, and that human beings should make use of the nature and defend themselves from being destroyed by it. Because of different thought styles, there is a difference in indicating things: the meanings of English words are concrete and specific, while that of Chinese characters are general. For example, when a Chinese say “车来了”, “车” here may refer to “bus” (公共汽车), “truck” (卡车), “taxi”(出租车), “coach” (长途公共汽车), “car” (轿车), or “minibus” (面包 车), etc.(贾文波, 2004: 109). Through this we can easily observe that Chinese language is so ambiguous. There are so many characters of this kind: in China, we always ask “你吃饭没有?”, but in English, nobody say in this way, because they have concrete words to indicate three meals, breakfast (早餐), lunch (午餐), supper (晚餐). The concrete and specific feature leads to the numerousness and complexity of English vocabulary. We have to remember them one by one, accurately and broadly, so that we can use it as we want, and produce precisely translated versions.3. Solutions9

3.1 To the problems caused by different cultural backgroundsa. Learn the cultures of both languages It is not very easy for a person to live in the environment of two languages. Limit exists for both Chinese learning English and westerners learning Chinese, because of the single language environment they are in. But if we want to do good translation, we have to try our best to learn broadly and deeply the cultures of both languages. Culture comes from history and history has been recorded in books, so reading more books is one of the best ways to learn different cultures. Moreover, culture comes from classical legend and folk tells, so communication with foreigners, travel to foreign countries, and joining summer camp in western countries are all good ways to learn cultures of other countries. Only after one can handle the cultures of both languages well, can one translate well. b. Adopt proper translation methods There are many translation methods, such as literal translation method, free translation method, transliteration, change of the function of words, etc. There isn’t a perfect translation method, but a proper one in one circumstance. Because literal translation, free translation, transliteration are mostly used, more details about them will be followed. Literal translation refers to the translation that “the SL (source language) grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TL (target language) equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a pre-translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved” (Newmark, 2001: 46). The advantage of it is the relatively perfect delivery of the meaning of the words and image of the original; the disadvantage is the difficulty in understanding caused by the cultural default of different nations. Free translation is the translation which “reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content without the form of the original. Usually it’s a paraphrase much longer than the original, a so-called ‘intralingual translation’, often prolix and pretentious” (Newmark, 2001: 46). Take the translation of the sentence “He is a horse” for example, it should be translated into “他跑得格外快”. Here, if we translate it into “他是一匹马”, one is easy to10

misunderstand it as an obscene sentence. Only if we can translate the essence of it, can the readers really understand the meaning. “Transliteration is that, in order to deliver the main function of the language, the translation is done to reserve the pronunciation of the original language in the target language” (陈宏薇,1998:95). The translation of the brand “Coca-Cola” into “可口可乐” can be judged as a perfect translation. For Chinese pronunciation, the pronunciation of “可 口可乐” is very close to that of the brand “Coca-Cola”; for the meaning, in China it means that it tastes well and it is enjoyable, and the translated version expresses faithfully the meaning, the effect, and the pronunciation.3.2 To the problems brought about by different thought stylesa. Learn more words and know how to use them “If a passage is a great building, words should be the bricks of it”(余光中. 2002: 105). So it is necessary to learn more words to guarantee the comprehension. As an English learner, one should build up our vocabulary, and learn how to use it and become a good translator. b. Develop the ability of understanding both languages Translation is based on the understanding of the original version, so comprehensive ability is of great importance. Because of the differences of thought styles, the ways of composing sentences, paragraphs, and passages are different, and then the language produced is of great difference. So the ability of understanding the two languages is indispensable for a translator. “Practice makes perfect”. No matter how good you are at choosing proper methods, producing good translation is impossible if you refuse to practice it.4. ConclusionThrough the above analysis of the translation examples and the research into the methods of translation, the translation of the sentence “give a bad name to the dog before hanging it” should not be “杀死这只狗前先给这只狗一个坏名字” any more, instead it should be an idiom “欲加之罪,何患无辞”. Though the story of a dog has been lost in the translated version, the meaning of the sentence is correctly conveyed to the target readers.11

Not only should we consider the meaning of the words of the original, but also we should consider the following two factors: cultural backgrounds, and thought styles of different nations. Only a good awareness of the culture backgrounds of both languages can well serve to produce qualified translated works. Easterners, especially Chinese people, emphasize perception and intuition, while westerners are rather reasonable and logical; Chinese people stress ideas while Westerners stress forms; Chinese people believe in integration while the westerners believe that the individual is the most important. Different cultural backgrounds call for our careful handling of cultures of the two nations, and then call for our proper choices of translation methods to better deliver the essence of the original version; and different thought styles call for our emphasis on specific thought styles of the two nations. Through practice, we can strengthen our understanding and expressing abilities, and produce good translated versions. In all, only when our translation is based on a thorough consideration of cultural backgrounds and thought styles of different nations, together with the proper translation methods, can we well deliver the original version with excellent translated version produced.12

Bibliography[1] Newmark, Peter. A Textbook of Translation [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2001. [2] Yuan Honggeng & Lu Yulin. English Poetry & It’s Major Criticism [M]. Lanzhou: Lanzhou University Press, 2003. [3] 陈宏薇. 汉英翻译基础[M]. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,1998. [4] 陈文伯. 英汉成语对照与翻译[M]. 北京:世界书城出版社,2005. [5] 存良. 白话易经(全译本)[M]. 呼和浩特:内蒙古人民出版社,1997. [6] 霍恩比(Hornby). 牛津高阶英汉双解词典[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,2002. [7] 贾文波. 运用翻译功用论[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版社,2004. [8] 连淑能. 英汉对照追求[M]. 北京:初等教育出版社,1993. [9] 陆乃圣. 英汉差异与翻译[M]. 上海:华东化工学院出版社,1993. [10] 疑华. 汉译英大辞典[M]. 北京:商务印书馆,2002. [11] 余光中. 余光中谈翻译[M]. 北京:中国对外翻译出版社,2002.13

Summary of Writing This ThesisIt was during my pre-teacher practicing in Pixian Second Middle School that I finished the first version of this thesis. During the writing of this thesis, there were many difficulties in data collection, and data arrangement. Xihua University Library helped me in data collection, and my supervisor gave me a lot of advice in writing this thesis. The thesis talks about the barriers that affect English-Chinese translation from the perspectives of cultural background and thought style. There are many barriers between English and Chinese, so it is impossible to analyze every one of them, then I determined to talk about the two main barriers—cultural background and thought style. Translation is a difficult task. In order to provide thesis readers with a better understanding of the translation methods and guarantee a proper adoption of translation methods when they are doing translation, some examples and corresponding analyses have to be included in the thesis. So it is necessary for me to spend much time on data collection and in considering how to organize my thesis. Time is limited, so there are many deficiencies in the first version. With the help of my supervisor, my friends, and other teachers, I finished my second version and the third one. The process of writing this thesis is difficult, but this precious process has given me an opportunity to experience these difficulties, and only through this can I develop and train myself, so I treasure this process. Through the writing of this thesis, I have obtained more knowledge about the differences of Chinese and English, and the causes of them, which can make me recognize how I should use learning strategies to learn English culture and other knowledge well in the future. Moreover, through analyzing these factors and difficulties, I have learned some good translation methods and known how to use them.14

AcknowledgementsFirstly, great thanks will be given to our institute for giving me this chance to do some attempts to analyze these two barriers to English-Chinese translation. Then, I will thank all the teachers and friends who have helped me to get ideas in writing this thesis. And great thanks should be given to Xihua University Library for providing me with valuable data. The most special thanks will be given to Ms Li Xinxin for her carefulness in helping me to finish this paper. She is a responsible teacher. Without these above assistances, I could not finish this paper, so I want to thank them again.15

 
 

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